Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/index.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 737

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JRegistryFormatINI::objectToString() should be compatible with JRegistryFormat::objectToString(&$object) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/registry/format/ini.php on line 281

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/index.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFile::exists() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/plugins/system/socialloginandsocialshare.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPath::clean() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/filesystem/file.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JPlugin in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/plugin.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JEvent::update() should be compatible with JObserver::update() in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/event/event.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

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Первые земледельцы уже знали удобрительную ценность навоза - Lenagro.ORG Сельское хозяйство Ленинградской области
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Главная Зарубежные Первые земледельцы уже знали удобрительную ценность навоза

Первые земледельцы уже знали удобрительную ценность навоза

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25.07.2013 18:25
Первые земледельцы принесли в Европу революционно новый образ жизни. Частью последнего, как только что выяснилось, было использование навоза для удобрения растений.

Как известно, удобрения обеспечивают сельскохозяйственные культуры всевозможными питательными веществами, чтобы те росли сильными и здоровыми, и самые главные из них — азот, фосфор и калий. Вот почему фермеры всего мира — и богатые, и бедные — так любят навоз. И сейчас нам очень трудно представить себе времена, когда никому не приходило в голову, что разбрасывание навоза вокруг растений сделает им хорошо. Тем не менее, такие времена были, и довольно долго считалось, что до удобрений земледельцы додумались сравнительно поздно — всего 3 тыс. лет назад. Хотя на Ближнем Востоке скотоводство и земледелие появились примерно за 8 тыс. лет до н.э., нет никаких признаков того, что навоз использовался там не только в качестве топлива для костров, пишет Д. Целиков (compulenta.computerra.ru) со ссылкой на Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Поэтому группа специалистов во главе с археоботаником Эми Богард из Оксфордского университета (Великобритания) решила поискать в Европе, куда земледелие перекинулось с Ближнего Востока около 8,5 тыс. лет назад.

У навоза более высокая концентрация редкого изотопа азота-15 по сравнению с другими компонентами почвы, где превалирует более легкий азот-14. Кроме того, недавние сельскохозяйственные исследования показали, что растения, подкормленные навозом, тоже содержат больше азота-15. Поэтому ученые проанализировали остатки зерновых (пшеницы, ячменя) и бобовых (гороха, чечевицы) культур, обнаруженных на месте 13 поселений ранних земледельцев, которые существовали 7900—4400 лет назад от Греции и Болгарии на юго-востоке до Британии и Дании на северо-западе. Уровень азота-15 в 124 образцах (а это в общей сложности более 2500 отдельных зерен и бобов) в большинстве случаев оказался очень высоким.

Г-жа Богард и ее коллеги заключают, что с распространением сельского хозяйства по Европе земледельцы начинали лучше заботиться о своих полях. Первые фермеры практиковали подсечно-огневое земледелие и, истощив почву, перемещались на новое место, тогда как медленно разлагавшийся навоз обеспечивал хороший урожай на несколько лет вперед, так что нужда в переезде отпадала. Участок земли перестал восприниматься как временный источник пропитания, его экономическая ценность выросла — он стал передаваться по наследству и превратился в товар. По-видимому, говорят исследователи, именно навоз способствовал появлению собственности на землю и социальному расслоению.

Теперь становятся понятными обнаруженные археологами свидетельства крайне жестоких нападений одних земледельцев на других. Например, в Тальхайме (ФРГ) найдено массовое захоронение, относящееся к концу VI тыс. до н.э. Убитые были повержены теми же орудиями, с помощью которых обрабатывали землю.

Исследователи отмечают также, что древние земледельцы Европы сортировали семена таким образом, чтобы удобрять только те культуры, которым навоз приносил максимальную пользу. Более стойкие и высокоурожайные культуры, которые могли справиться сами, росли без подкормки. Представления о том, что это были наивные дурачки, которые могли только бить в бубен и ждать милостей от природы, давно устарели.

Каким же образом ранние фермеры выяснили, что навоз — ключ к успеху? В поисках ответа г-жа Богард исходит из того, что жизнь первобытных аграриев напрямую зависела от их способности обращать внимание на малозаметные изменения в окружающей среде. Например, они обнаружили, что участки, где паслись животные и накапливался навоз, активнее заселяются дикими злаками. К тому же археологические раскопки на Ближнем Востоке и в Европе говорят о том, что земледелие и скотоводство развивались в тандеме, были с самого начала тесно переплетены.


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