Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/index.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 737

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JRegistryFormatINI::objectToString() should be compatible with JRegistryFormat::objectToString(&$object) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/registry/format/ini.php on line 281

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/index.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFile::exists() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/plugins/system/socialloginandsocialshare.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPath::clean() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/filesystem/file.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JPlugin in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/plugin.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JEvent::update() should be compatible with JObserver::update() in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/event/event.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

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10 открытий, накормивших мир - Lenagro.ORG Сельское хозяйство Ленинградской области
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10 открытий, накормивших мир

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01.02.2011 23:46
Нехватка продуктов сопровождала человечество на протяжении всей его истории и каждый раз толкала к новым изобретениям.

1. Увеличение площади полей
Переход от собирательства к земледелию в 8-м тысячелетии до нашей эры получил название "неолитическая революция". С тех пор количество сельхозугодий увеличивалось вплоть до середины 80-х годов прошлого века. Сегодня используется практически вся пригодная для обработки земля — это 1450 млн гектаров, или всего 11 процентов территории обитаемой суши. Для освоения других земель нужно вложить большие средства для осушения, увлажнения или, например, обессоливания земли.

2. Орошение
Орошение помогает человечеству спасаться от голода, начиная с неолита. За это время из примитивной системы арыков превратилось в гигантские оросительные сооружения, которые ежегодно забирают из рек и озер приблизительно 1750 куб. км пресной воды на полив. Сегодня для производства 1 тонны зерна требуется около 1 тысячи тонн воды, из-за чего в тех районах, где активно выращивают зерно, уровень грунтовых вод падает со скоростью более 1,5 метра в год. В первую очередь эти проблемы касаются севера Китая и Индии.

3. Культурные растения
Первыми "одомашненными" растениями были пшеница и ячмень, горох и чечевица. Сегодня "одомашненных" растений почти 200 видов. На первом месте у человечества остались пшеница, рис, кукуруза, просо, рожь и овес, на втором — крупы, на третьем — картофель, батат и ямс. Пшеница и кукуруза, которые занимают самые большие площади в мире, с 2007 года стали яблоком раздора между "автомобилистами" и "бедняками". Чтобы произвести 50 литров биотоплива, требуется израсходовать 352 кг кукурузы. То есть на одну заправку автомобиля уходит питание одного человека в год.

4. Удобрения
Минеральные удобрения изобрели в середине ХIХ века, а широко применять их стали через полвека, когда население планеты превысило 1 млрд человек. Резкий подъем химической промышленности в Европе, связанный с производством взрывчатки, привел и к началу "химизации сельского хозяйства". ХХ век стал веком минеральных удобрений. "Полезную химию" тоннами распыляли с самолетов, добавляли в каналы орошения и просто высыпали на поля. Сегодня без применения удобрений, пестицидов и гербицидов человечество будет терять 75 процентов урожая, то есть попросту умрет от голода.

5. Селекция
Именно селекции человечество во многом обязано жизнью, именно с ней в большей мере связано понятие "зеленая революция", которая началась в начале 1940-х в Мексике. Ее "отец", американский агроном и генетик Норман Борлоуг, приехал по приглашению мексиканского правительства, чтобы помочь бороться с неурожаями. Он вывел несколько новых сортов пшеницы и кукурузы, которые коренным образом изменили экономику страны, за что и получил Нобелевскую премию. Сейчас известны более 10 тысяч сортов пшеницы, полученных учеными.

6. Поточное производство
Машины пришли в сельское хозяйство в Англии в XVIII веке, когда стало ясно, что деревня не может прокормить город. С тех пор активная механизация и появление поточного метода выращивания и растений, и животных стали главной визитной карточкой сельского хозяйства. По данным Всемирной продовольственной организации, за последние 40 лет в мире количество домашних животных увеличилось на 60 процентов, а птиц — на 400. Коровы, стоящие в стойлах, как книжки на полке, куры в крошечных клетках — все это черты нашей вечно голодной цивилизации.

7. Косервация
Первые консервы появились 200 лет назад во Франции, где их создал для королевского флота повар Николя Аппер. Вскоре подобные технологии стали распространены везде, в том числе и в России. С тех пор для хранения продуктов было придумано много способов: нанесение антибиотиков на внутреннюю сторону упаковки, газовые смеси, закачанные в пакеты с овощами, высокотемпературный шок и нанотехнологические покрытия, защищающие продукты от порчи. Тем не менее специалисты уверены, что самым лучшим консервантом по-прежнему является холод.

8. Генно-модифицированные организмы
Технологии, позволяющие путем модификации генома растения изменить его свойства, появились в конце 1970-х. Через десять лет, в 1987-м, появился первый устойчивый к вирусам ГМО-помидор. В 1993 году генетически измененные продукты были допущены на прилавки магазинов мира. Сегодня в мире более 80 млн гектаров занимают генетически измененные растения, прежде всего это соя, кукуруза и картофель. Сейчас Австрия, Швейцария, Польша, Греция, Венесуэла, Германия и Франция остаются "свободными от ГМО".

9. Аква- и марикультура
Аквакультура стала активно развиваться в конце ХХ века, когда стало очевидно, что рыболовству в промышленных масштабах положен предел: рыбы в морях буквально не осталось. С тех пор этот сектор однин из самых быстроразвивающихся в мире. Сегодня на рыбных и морских "фермах" могут выращивать практически все — устриц, мидий, креветок, морских гребешков, водоросли и любую рыбу. Количество лосося, полученного в неволе благодаря стараниям Норвегии, в прошлом году перевалило за миллион тонн. Половина всей рыбы, которую мы видим на прилавках, выращена человеком.

10. "Мясо из пробирки"
Через несколько лет для производства фрикаделек и шницелей человечеству не будут нужны коровы и свиньи. Это произойдет, если будут удачными эксперименты по выращиванию "мяса в пробирке". Тогда, как говорят специалисты, мы сможем одной клеткой мяса накормить весь мир. Пока об успешных опытах по выращиванию мышечных волокон сообщили несколько групп ученых, в том числе голландцы из университетов Эйндховена и Маастрихта, которые продемонстрировали публике "мясо будущего". По внешнему виду и консистенции эта биомасса пока далека от совершенства.


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