Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/index.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 737

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JRegistryFormatINI::objectToString() should be compatible with JRegistryFormat::objectToString(&$object) in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/registry/format/ini.php on line 281

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/index.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFile::exists() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/plugins/system/socialloginandsocialshare.php on line 15

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPath::clean() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/filesystem/file.php on line 373

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JPlugin in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/plugin/plugin.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JEvent::update() should be compatible with JObserver::update() in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/joomla/event/event.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /usr/www/users/lenagr/libraries/loader.php on line 71

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Биологические особенности картофеля - Lenagro.ORG Сельское хозяйство Ленинградской области
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Биологические особенности картофеля

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Автор: Евгений Долматов   
29.05.2013 13:54
Картофель принадлежит к роду Solanum. L. семейства Solanacae (пасленовые). В состав этого рода входят около 200 культурных, примитивных и диких видов картофеля, в том числе культурные виды S. tuberosum S. andigenum.

Культурный картофель - растение умеренного влажного климата, и рыхлых почв. На родине культурного картофеля (Чили) клубнеобразование в течение многих тысячелетий протекало в условиях обильного увлажнения при среднесуточной температуре воздуха 10-15,3о С и продолжительности дня от 12 до 15 часов. Эти условия характеризуются также отсутствием резких колебаний температуры воздуха дня и ночи, заморозки случаются редко, и в течение вегетации наблюдается высокая относительная влажность (более 75 %). Таким образом, картофель в филогенезе приспособился к пониженным температурам, обильному увлажнению и средней продолжительности светового периода суток.

Виды и сорта картофеля, в зависимости от их географического происхождения, различаются по требованиям к внешним условиям. Потребности картофеля в условиях внешней среды зависят также от фазы его развития. Когда эти условия отвечают требованиям сорта, картофель хорошо растет и развивается, дает хорошие урожаи клубней.

Картофель - многолетнее травянистое растение, размножаемое вегетативно: клубнями или их частями, ростками, черенками, отводками. На практике картофель используют как однолетнее растение, размножая при этом клубнями.

Характерная особенность картофеля состоит в том, что основная масса запасенных веществ материнского клубня используется растениями в процессе вегетации и значительно меньшая доля расходуется в период прорастания. При посадке клубней почки появляются не из всех глазков, а большей частью - только верхушечных. Более высокая активность и энергия роста верхушечных почек объясняется повышенной концентрацией питательных веществ вершинной части клубня. Из боковых глазков прорастают чаще всего 1-2 почки. Б.А. Писарев (1977; 1990) отмечает, что почки способны медленно расти и развиваться при температуре 3-5оС, однако, образование ростков практически начинается лишь при температуре выше 5оС. При повышении температуры до 22-25оС интенсивность развития проростков значительно возрастает, благодаря чему рост молодых побегов увеличивается, и всходы появляются раньше.

Опытами НИИКХ установлено, что картофель при температуре 10-12оС в умеренно влажной почве дает всходы на 25 - 27-й день при 14-16оС - на 18 -22-й день, при 18-25оС - на 12 - 13-й день, при 27-28оС - на 16-17-й день. При очень низких и очень высоких температурах почвы темпы прорастания картофеля замедляются. При температуре 3-5оС может происходить незначительный рост и развитие почек без образования корневой системы. При температуре ниже 3-5оС и выше 31оС рост и развитие почек на клубнях останавливается, а пребывание картофеля в течение нескольких дней при температуре -1-1,5оС и 35оС обычно ведет к сильному повреждению клубней. При длительных заморозках клубни погибают.

Всходы картофеля лучше всего развиваются в прохладную погоду. В этот период нежные молодые растения очень чувствительны к жаре. Сорта картофеля различаются по длительности этого периода и при одновременной посадке в почву имеют разные сроки появления всходов, продолжительность прохождения фаз развития, неодинаковый ритм роста. Большие колебания в длительности периода между посадкой и массовыми всходами объясняются главным образом климатическими условиями в мае - июне. Слабое прогревание почвы нередко затягивает сроки появления массовых всходов, что ведет к сокращению вегетационного периода. Большую роль в этом отношении имеет выбор участков для картофеля.

Период клубнеобразования у картофеля может совпадать с фазой образования соцветий. Наиболее благоприятная температура воздуха для клубнеобразования - 16-19оС. Для формирования клубней у ранних сортов лучше всего температура 11 -14оС, а для среднеспелых и позднеспелых -19оС. При температурах воздуха ниже 3оС и выше 31оС рост клубней картофеля прекращается. По мнению А.Г. Лорха (1960) малейшее отклонение температуры, влажности и освещенности в ту или иную сторону усиливает рост тех органов, для которых сочетание этих внешних условий становится более благоприятным. Так, различные по скороспелости сорта по-разному относятся к тепловому режиму почвы: скороспелые сорта проявляют скороспелость на прохладных почвах (раньше цветут и раньше созревают) и являются среднеспелыми на более теплых почвах. То есть, отмечает автор, наследуются не темпы роста и развития растений, а их отношение к комплексу внешних условий. Сумма температур (выше+10оС) за вегетационный период, необходимая для полного развития растений, в среднем, равна для ранних сортов - 1000 - 1100оС, для среднеранних - 1100 - 1400, для среднеспелых и позднеспелых - 1400 - 1600° С. Диапазон оптимальных температур для клубнеобразования зависит не только от скороспелости сорта, но и от комплекса сопутствующих внешних условий. Высокие температуры в сочетании с длинным днем на Севере вызывают превращения столонов в надземные побеги и израстание клубней. Повышенная температура воздуха способствует большему образованию и ветвлению столонов, в результате чего число клубней увеличивается за счет уменьшения их размера. В этот период важную роль играет оптимальный водный режим. При недостатке влаги в период клубнеобразования замедляется их рост, вследствие чего формируются мелкие клубни. Решающими для этого периода роста являются запасы продуктивной влаги в пахотном слое.

При температуре 12...16о С наибольшие приросты ботвы наблюдаются при запасах влаги в пахотном слое 70-85 % НВ, а при 19.20 о С - около 10 % НВ. Клубнеобразование прекращается при переувлажнении почвы на суглинистых и супесчаных почвах при запасах продуктивной влаги в пахотном слое более 65 - 70 мм. Продолжительное переувлажнение нередко приводит к удушению и загниванию клубней от недостатка кислорода, которое выражается в виде разрастания на поверхности клубней рыхлых белых чечевичек.

Отношение картофеля к освещению необходимо рассматривать в связи с другими факторами, особенно с температурой воздуха. При температуре 10.. .15 о С растения быстрее созревают в условиях длинного дня, при более высокой - в условиях короткого.

При возделывании картофеля необходимо проводить мероприятия, направленные на регулирование доступа света к листьям всех ярусов. Так, при направлении рядков с севера на юг урожайность картофеля повышается на 1,6 - 2 т/га, а крахмалистость увеличивается на 1 - 2 % по сравнению с направлением их с запада на восток.

Картофель - культура рыхлых почв. По данным НИИКХ, наилучшие условия для роста картофеля создаются при плотности почвы 1,1 - 1,2 г/см , что соответствует среднесуглинистым и дерново-подзолистым почвам.

Продуктивность сорта в конкретных условиях среды определяется формированием в этих условиях его основных эколого-физиологических систем и может варьировать от 0 до 100% от её потенциально возможного уровня. В современных условиях в природной обстановке продуктивность генотипа обычно достигает не более 60-70% от потенциально возможного уровня. Зафиксированы рекордные урожаи картофеля 100-120 т/га. Однако, в производстве урожайность в 5-10 раз ниже, поскольку реализация потенциальной продуктивности зависит, как от способности самих растений противостоять неблагоприятным факторам внешней среды, так и условий возделывания. Величина урожая - всегда результат компромисса между продуктивностью и устойчивостью к неблагоприятным факторам среды.

Таблица 1 - Потенциальная продуктивность с/х культур в районах Северо-Запада (при η*=2,5%)

Регион, республика, область

ФАР, МДж/м2

Абсолютно

сухая биомасса, ц/га

Продуктивность культуры, ц/га

озимая пшеница

картофель

зеленая масса трав

Мурманская

690

91

35

270

360

Коми

650

85

33

250

340

Архангельская

800

105

40

310

420

Карелия

830

109

42

320

430

Ленинградская

1100

145

56

428

580

Вологодская

1100

145

56

428

580


*η - эффективность использования солнечной энергии фотосинтезом.

Посевы по их средним значениям КПД подразделяются на четыре группы: обычно наблюдаемые - 0,5-1,5%; хорошие -1,5-3,0%; рекордные - 3,5-5%; теоретически возможные - 6-8%.
 

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